BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA AND PERSISTENTLY INFECTION OF CATTLE AT NINEVEH PROVINCE, IRAQ
Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research,
Volume 17, Issue 2, Pages 14-32
AbstractThe current study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Bovine viral diarrhea and persistently infected (PI) animals at Nineveh province ,Iraq, using antigen capture enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (AC-ELISA) test and multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR technique) as a diagnostic tool and to determine BVDV genotypes, However, investigation of some epidemiological risk factors associated with occurrence of disease was also encountered. The study was started from January to August, 2017. A total of 494 cattle ear notches (112 adult cows, 30 younger calves and 352 young beeflot calves) was sampled and tested. For investigating of the persistently infected animals, The positive cattle were screened for a second time after four weeks from the first sampling, Moreover, epidemiological data collected through interview with the farmer s’ owner. Furthermore, The 5-Untranslated rejoin (5’ UTR gene) of BVDV extracted from ear notch were used to determine the genotypes of the virus. Results indicated that the overall prevalence of BVD in Nineveh province based on AC-ELISA and multiplex PCR technique was 5.46% and 13.96%, respectively.Moreover, the prevalence of PI in cattle was 0.8% for each test. According to Kappa value (0.457), it has been found that, the multiplex PCR is highly efficient for diagnosis of BVDV in cattle than AC-ELISA test. It was indicated that both BVDV1 and BVDV2 were detected in Nineveh province at (12.95%, 1.01%) respectively. Results were also indicated that the cattle ages, genders, breeds, importation, large herd size, regions and the seasons were significantly associated with higher prevalence of BVD. It has been concluded that BVD is an endemic disease in Nineveh province, However, at several factors could assist for its spreading. Moreover, two genotypes were detected, BVDV1 and BVDV2.Therefore, control programs as well as early detection of PI animals should advised, and have the priority.
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